Nasser, l’Aigle égyptien

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Parution
2015-09
Cet article a été publié dans: 
Numéro 91 - Septembre 2015

« Moi, aujourd’hui, au nom du peuple, je prends la Compagnie. Ce soir, notre canal égyptien sera dirigé par des Égyptiens ! » ; Cette fameuse déclaration de Gamal Abdel Nasser, le 26 juillet 1956, faisant suite à la révolution de 1952 qui avait permis de mettre fin au joug de la Grande-Bretagne sur le pays, marque l’un des grands moments de l’épopée nassérienne qui fut avant celle du renouveau d’un pays et d’un peuple. 

 


 
Héros de la guerre de Palestine en 1948, nationaliste arabe, précurseur du non-alignement, Nasser fut l’homme de toutes les grandes causes. Il fut surtout le héros égyptien du XXe siècle, celui qui prononça la célèbre phrase qui résume et explique tout le charisme et la détermination de celui qui reste: « Relève la tête mon frère car les jours d’humiliation sont terminés ». On ne comprend pas l’engouement nouveau du peuple égyptien pour Nasser sans se référer à ces grands moments de fierté nationale qu’il a pu incarner. 

 


 
Sans sous-estimer les échecs (la défaite de 1967) et les erreurs (un socialisme étatique outrancier), Georges Sinoué, qui est un romancier aimant l’Histoire et les grands hommes, livre sa vision de celui qu’il appelle « l’Aigle égyptien ». Avec son talent de romancier, il réussit un portrait vivant de Nasser en mettant en lumière les multiples visages du Raïs qui portait la voix des Arabes dans le monde entier. 

 


 
Certes, on pourra regretter l’étrange balance que l’auteur semble vouloir tenir entre ce qu’il appelle les « deux visages de Nasser » et qui est simplement la fatalité des choses et les contraintes du cours de l’Histoire.  Mais tel est le sort de Nasser –comme celui des autres grands hommes (de Gaulle, Churchill…) : il est curieux que certains préfèrent retenir les erreurs ou les échecs et oublient trop volontiers l’immense espoir que des  hommes hors du commun ont incarné. Pour ce qui concerne Nasser, Sinoué a raison de retenir des options  fondamentales : plus de justice sociale, plus de dignité nationale, la volonté de réunir les Arabes dans un destin commun, le refus du diktat des grandes puissances… Tout cela fut le rêve de Nasser. Un espoir et un combat qui continue à être le défi que doit relever toutes la nation arabe, laquelle, aujourd’hui plus encore qu’hier, connait des heures douloureuses alors que ses ennemis sont toujours aux aguets. C’est pourquoi, comme le note Georges Sinoué, Nasser reste «une figure incontournable de l’histoire politique du monde contemporain, l’une des incarnations les plus marquantes de la volonté de libération et d’union du Monde arabe. »





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